Jumat, 08 Juni 2012



1. Caffeine: It may take six to eight hours for the effects of caffeine to wear off completely. Caffeine is believed to interfere with sleep signals by blocking adenosine receptors.

2. Nicotine: This is a stimulant that causes lighterthan- normal sleep patterns.

3. Alcohol: It often has an initial sedating effect, but it can prevent rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the deep stages of non-REM sleep during the night.

4. Psychological disorders: They can disrupt REM and deep sleep. Depression may cause insomnia as well.

5. Nighttime exercise: Daytime exercise is associated with improved nighttime sleep, but evening exercise can delay the release of melatonin that helps someone fall asleep at night. The National Sleep Foundation recommends leaving three hours between exercise and sleep, if possible.

6. Large meals: They can make it tough to fall asleep because they can cause indigestion. Excessive fl uid intake can cause you to awaken frequently to urinate.

7. Chronic pain: Painful conditions such as fi bromyalgia and arthritis can interfere with sleep.

8. Medications: Many pain relievers contain caffeine; decongestants and steroid medications can disrupt sleep; and beta-blockers can make it diffi cult to fall asleep and cause frequent nighttime awakenings.

9. Environment: Noise, lighting, and uncomfortable temperatures also can interfere with a good night’s sleep.

Know Your Grains

Know Your Grains

As a dietitian, you’re well aware that there are several whole grain varieties available. But your clients may think they have to eat more wheat or brown rice to get their daily whole grain intake. The truth is, the more variety they get, the better. Today’s Dietitian created the following list highlighting some examples of whole grains clients can eat. Any of these grains, when consumed in a form that includes the bran, germ, and endosperm, are considered whole grain foods and fl ours.

Barley has more uses than in a bowl of soup. It can be served as a side dish, baked in bread, or used in fl our form to make cakes and cookies. Barley is also the highest in fi ber of all the whole grains.

Often known for its use in pancake mixes, buckwheat, which isn’t actually part of the cereal family, has a nutty fl avor and is the only grain known to have high levels of the antioxidant rutin. It also provides a high level of protein, second only to oats.

Most people don’t realize—or may forget—that corn is a whole grain. Whether it’s corn on the cob, popcorn, corn cakes, tortillas, or polenta, corn is a whole grain known for its sweet fl avor.

Most of the oats in this country are steamed and fl attened to produce “old-fashioned” or quick and instant oats. One thing unique to oats is the fact they almost never have their bran and germ removed in processing. If clients see oats or oat fl our on the ingredient list, they’ll know it’s almost
always a whole grain.

This small and round grain is getting increased attention among consumers. It’s packed with protein and can be added to soups, salads, and baked goods or served as a side dish.

Many clients already know they should make the switch from refi ned white rice to whole grain brown rice, but many don’t realize that whole grain rice also can be black, purple, or red. Rice happens to be one of the most easily digested grains, ideal for those on a restricted diet or who are gluten intolerant.

Also called milo, sorghum isn’t well known among consumers. That’s largely because it’s primarily used for livestock feed in this country. However, sorghum recently has received increased attention for its gluten-free benefi ts. Clients can substitute sorghum for wheat fl our and incorporate it into casseroles, pizzas, pastas, and baked goods.